These articles have been recommended as excellent sources of educational information. The permission of each varies.
BASIC SCIENCE/FRACTURE HEALING
- The Musculoskeletal Effects of Smoking Author: Scott E. Porter, MD, and Edward N. Hanley, Jr, MD Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan/Feb 2001
- Biological Basis of Fracture Healing Author: Jones CB. Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 19, No. 10 Supp, Nov/Dec 2005, pp S1-S3.
- Overview of Biologics Author: J. Tracy Watson, MD Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 19, No. 10 Supp, Nov/Dec 2005, pp S14-S16
- The Science of Fracture Healing Author: Thomas A. Einhorn, MD Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 19, No. 10 Supp, Nov/Dec 2005, pp S4-S6
- A unified theory of bone healing and nonunion: BHN theory. Author: Elliott DS, Newman KJ, Forward DP, et al. Bone Joint J. 2016 Jul;98-B(7):884-91.
- Evolution of the internal fixation of long bone fractures. The scientific basis of biological internal fixation: choosing a new balance between stability and biology. Author: Perren SM. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2002 Nov;84(8):1093-110.
- Locking plates: tips and tricks. Author: Smith WR, Ziran BH, Anglen JO, et al. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Oct;89(10):2298-307.
- Biomechanics of locked plates and screws. Author: Egol KA, Kubiak EN, Fulkerson E, et al. J Orthop Trauma. 2004 Sep;18(8):488-93.
- How much do locked screws add to the fixation of "hybrid" plate constructs in osteoporotic bone? Author: Freeman AL, Tornetta P 3rd, Schmidt A, et al. J Orthop Trauma. 2010 Mar;24(3):163-9.
- Acute Compartment Syndrome in Lower Extremity Musculoskeletal Trauma Author: Steven A. Olson, MD, and Robert R. Glasgow, MD Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 13, pp 436-444, 2005
- Compartment syndrome associated with tibial fracture. Author: Tornetta P III, Templeman D. Instr Course Lect. 1997;46:303-8.
- Acute Compartment Syndrome: Update on Diagnosis and Treatment. Author: Whitesides TE, Heckman MM. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 1996 Jul;4(4):209-218.
- Compartment monitoring in tibial fractures. The pressure threshold for decompression. Author: McQueen MM, Court-Brown CM. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1996 Jan;78(1):99-104.
- Diastolic blood pressure in patients with tibia fractures under anaesthesia: implications for the diagnosis of compartment syndrome. Author: Kakar S, Firoozabadi R, McKean J, et al. J Orthop Trauma. 2007 Feb;21(2):99-103.
- Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism: The Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy Author: William H. Geerts, MD, FCCP; Graham F. Pineo, MD; John A. Heit, MD; David Bergqvist, MD, PhD; Michael R. Lassen, MD; Clifford W. Colwell, MD; and Joel G. Ray, MD, MSc Journal: 7th ACCP Conference Volume: pp 338S-400S, Sept 2004 Supplement
- Duration of Prophylaxis Against Venous Thromboembolism With Fondaparinux After Hip Fracture Surgery: A Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study* Author: Bengt I. Eriksson, MD, PhD, Michael R. Lassen, MD Journal: Arch Intern Med Volume: Vol. 163, pp 1337-1342, June 9, 2003 "Copyright (2003), American Medical Association. All Rights reserved." *Permission to Abstract Granted by Arch Intern
- Mechanical Prophylaxis Against Deep-Vein Thrombosis After Pelvic and Acetabular Fractures Author: James P. Stannard, MD, Reneé S. Riley, MD, Michelle D. McClenney, RN, Robert R. Lopez-Ben, MD David A. Volgas, MD, Jorge E. Alonso, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 83-A, No. 7, July 2001, pp 1047-1051
- Use of the Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin Reviparin to Prevent Deep-Vein Thrombosis after Leg Injury Requiring Immobilization * Author: Lassen, Michael R.; Borris, Lars C.; Nakov, Roumen L. Journal: NEJM Volume: Vol. 347, No. 10, Sept 5, 2002, pp 726-730 *New England Journal of Medicine created special permission link to access article.
- Prevention of Pulmonary Embolism and Deep Vein Thrombosis with Low Dose Aspirin: Pulmonary Embolism Prevention (PEP) Trial Author: Pulmonary Embolism Prevention (PEP) Trial Collaborative Group* Journal: The Lancet Volume: Vol. 355, April 15, 2000, pp 1295-1302
- Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Hip Fractures: A Comparison of the Arteriovenous Impulse System and Aspirin Author: John G. Kennedy, MMSc, FRCSI, Karen E. Soffe, MB, BSc, Blake W. Rogers, MD, Sunil Kumar, FRCS, Denis R. Griffen, MD, Pietro A. Dallo Vedova, MD, Raymond J. Sullivan, MD, and Lester J. Sheehan, MD Journal: TRAUMA Volume: Vol. 48, No. 2, pp 268-272, 2000
- Treatment and Complications in Orthopaedic Trauma Patients with Symptomatic Pulmonary Embolism. Author: Bogdan Y, Tornetta P III, Leighton R, et al. J Orthop Trauma. 2014;28(supplement 1):S6-S9.
- Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Orthopaedic Trauma Patients: A Survey of OTA Member Practice Patterns and OTA Expert Panel Recommendations. Author: Sagi HC, Ahn J, Ciesla D, et al. J. Orthop Trauma 2015 Oct;29(10):e355-62.
- East Practice Management Guidelines Work Group: update to practice management guidelines for prophylactic antibiotic use in open fractures. Author: Hoff WS, Bonadies JA, Cachecho R, et al. J Trauma. 2011 Mar;70(3):751-4.
- Practice Management Guidelines for Identifying Cervical Spine Injuries Following Trauma Author: EAST Practice Parameter Workgroup for Cervical Spine Clearance: Donald W. Marion, MD, Chairman (Neurosurgery), Robert Domeier, MD (Emergency Medicine), C. Michael Dunham, MD (General Surgery), Fred A. Luchette, MD (General Surgery), Regis Haid, MD (Neuros Journal: EAST Volume: © 1998, pp 1-14 * Permission to article granted by EAST
- Determination of Cervical Spine Stability in Trauma Patients (Update of the 1997 EAST Cervical Spine Clearance Document) Author: Cervical Spine Clearance Committee: Donald Marion, Robert Domeier, C. Michael Dunham, Fred Luchette, Regis Haid Journal: EAST Volume: © 2000, pp 1-9 * Permission to article granted by EAST
- Clinical Practice Guideline: Endpoints of Resuscitation Author: Samuel A. Tisherman, MD, FACS, Philip Barie, MD, FACS, Faran Bokhari, MD, FACS, John Bonadies , MD, FACS, Brian Daley, MD, FACS, Lawrence Diebel, MD, FACS, Soumitra R. Eachempati, MD, FACS, Stanley Kurek, DO, Fred A. Luchette, MD, FACS, Juan Carlos Puyana Journal: EAST Volume: © 2003, pp 1-28 * Permission to article granted by EAST
- Utilizing Evidence Based Outcome Measures to Develop Practice Management Guidelines: A Primer Author: Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) Ad Hoc Committee on Practice Management Guideline Development 2000 Journal: EAST Volume: © 2000 * Permission to article granted by EAST
- Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guidelines for hemorrhage in pelvic fracture--update and systematic review. Author: Cullinane DC, Schiller HJ, Zielinski MD, et al. J Trauma. 2011 Dec;71(6):1850-68.
- Practice Management Guidelines for the Management of Venous Thromboembolism in Trauma Patients Author: EAST Practice Parameter Workgroup for DVT Prophylaxis: Frederick B. Rogers, MD, FACS, Mark D. Cipolle, MD, Ph.D., George Velmahos, MD, Ph.D., Grace Rozycki, MD Journal: EAST Volume: * Permission to article granted by EAST
- Practice Management Guidelines for Nutritional Support of the Trauma Patient Author: David G. Jacobs, MD, Danny O. Jacobs, MD, Kenneth A. Kudsk, MD, Frederick A. Moore, MD, Michael F. Oswanski, MD, Galen V. Poole, MD, Gordon S. Sacks, PharmD, L.R. “Tres” Scherer, III, MD, and Karlene E. Sinclair, MD Journal: EAST Volume: © 2003, pp 1-93 * Permission to article granted by EAST
- Practice Management Guidelines for the Optimal Timing of Long Bone Fracture Stabilization in Polytrauma Patients Author: C. Michael Dunham, MD, Michael J. Bosse, MD, Thomas V. Clancy, MD, Frederic J. Cole, Jr, MD, Maxime J.M. Coles, MD, Thomas Knuth, MD, Fred A. Luchette, MD, Robert Ostrum, MD, Brian Plaisier, MD, Attila Poka, MD, Ronald J. Simon, MD Journal: EAST Volume: © 2000, pp 1-39 * Permission to article granted by EAST
- Evaluation and management of penetrating lower extremity arterial trauma: an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guideline. Author: Fox N, Rajani RR, Bokhari F, et al. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012 Nov;73(5 Suppl 4):S315-20.
- Practice Management Guidelines for the Screening of Thoracolumbar Spine Fracture Author: Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma: Practice Management Guideline Committee Journal: EAST Volume: © 2006, pp 1-40 * Permission to article granted by EAST
- Practice Management Guidelines for Hospital Based Violence Intervention Programs Author: Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Journal: EAST Volume: © 2016 *
- Orthopaedic Research Society Special Article: Heterotopic Ossification Author: Frederick S. Kaplan, MD, David L. Glaser, MD, Nader Hebela, MD, and Eileen M. Shore, PhD Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 12, No. 2, March/April 2004, pp 116-125
- Does Indomethacin Reduce Heterotopic Bone Formation After Operations for Acetabular Fractures? A Prospective Randomised Study Author: Matta, J. M.; Siebenrock, K. A. Journal: JBJS(Br) Volume: Vol. 79-B, No. 6, Nov 1997, pp 959-963 *Permission Granted by JBJS (Br)
- Heterotopic Ossification Prophylaxis with Indomethacin Increases the Risk of Long-bone Nonunion Author: T. A. Burd, M. S. Hughes, J. O. Anglen (from the University of Missouri, Columbia, USA) Journal: JBJS(Br) Volume: Vol. 85-B, pp 700-705, 2003
- Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Hip Fracture Surgery: A Metaanalysis Author: James P. Southwell-Keely, BVSc, MBBS,* Robert R. Russo, B App Sc (Phty), MBBS,** Lyn March, MBBS, MSc, PhD,† Robert Cumming, MBBS, PhD,‡ Ian Cameron, MBBS, PhD,§ & Alan J. M. Brnabic, BA Dip Ed, MappStats Journal: CORR Volume: No. 419, Feb 2004, pp 179–184
- Antibiotic Therapy for Musculoskeletal Infections Author: Jon T. Mader, Jue Wang and Jason H. Calhoun Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 83-A, No. 12, Dec 2001, pp 1878-1890
- The Effect of Surgical Delay on Acute Infection Following 554 Open Fractures in Children Author: David L. Skaggs, Lauren Friend, Benjamin Alman, Henry G. Chambers, Michael Schmitz, Brett Leake, Robert M. Kay and John M. Flynn Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 87-A, No. 1, Jan 2005, pp 8-12
- Incidence, risk factors, and diagnostic evaluation of postoperative fever in an orthopaedic trauma population. Author: Petretta R, McConkey M, Slobogean GP, et al. J Orthop Trauma. 2013 Oct;27(10):558-62.
- Once Daily, High Dose Versus Divided, Low Dose Gentamicin for Open Fractures Author: Joel I. Sorger, MD*; Patrick G.Kirk, MD*; Christopher J. Ruhnke, MD*; Stephen H. Bjornson, MD, PhD**; Martin S. Levy, PhDf; James Cockrin, PhDf; Peter Tang, AB$ Journal: CORR Volume: No. 366, Sept 1999, pp 197-204
- Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study Comparing Single-Agent Antibiotic Therapy, Ciprofloxacin, to Combination Antibiotic Therapy in Open Fracture Wounds Author: Patzakis, Michael J.; Bains, Ravi S.; Lee, Jackson; Shepherd, Lane; Singer, Gordon; Ressler, Ron; Harvey, Frances; Holtom, Paul Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 14, No. 8, Nov 2000, pp 529-533
- Randomised Controlled Trial of Single-Dose Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Surgical Treatment of Closed Fractures: the Dutch Trauma Trial Author: Han Boxma, Tom Broekhuizen, Peter Patka, Hans Oosting* Journal: The Lancet Volume: Vol. 347, April 27, 1996, pp 1133-1137
- Comparison of Intravenous and Oral Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Fractures Caused by Low-Velocity Gunshots. A Prospective, Randomized Study of Infection Rates Author: Thomas P. Knapp, Michael J. Patzakis, Jackson Lee, Peter R. Seipel, Karim Abdollahi, and Robert B. Reisch Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 78-A, No. 8, Aug 1996
- Preoperative Diagnosis of Infection in Patients with Nonunions. Author: Stucken C, Olszewski DC, Creevy WR, Murakami AM, Tornetta P J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013 Aug 7;95(15):1409-12.
- Ballistics and Gunshot Wounds: Effects on Musculoskeletal Tissues Author: Craig S. Bartlett, MD, David L. Helfet, MD, Michael R. Hausman, MD, and Elton Strauss, MD Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan/Feb 2000, pp 21-36
- Hardware Removal: Indications and Expectations Author: Matthew L. Busam, MD*, Robert J. Esther, MD, MSc*, William T. Obremskey, MD, MPH Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 14, No. 2, Feb 2006, pp 113-120
- Functional Outcomes Following Trauma-Related Lower-Extremity Amputation Author: Ellen J. MacKenzie, Michael J. Bosse, Renan C. Castillo, Douglas G. Smith, Lawrence X. Webb, James F. Kellam, Andrew R. Burgess, Marc F. Swiontkowski, Roy W. Sanders, Alan L. Jones, Mark P. McAndrew, Brendan M. Patterson, Thomas G. Travison, and Melissa L Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 86-A, No. 8, Aug 2004, pp 1636-1645
- Dead Space Management After Orthopaedic Trauma: Tips, Tricks, and Pitfalls. Author: Gage MJ, Yoon RS, Gaines RJ, et al. J Orthop Trauma. 2016 Feb;30(2):64-70.
- Masquelet technique for the treatment of bone defects: tips-tricks and future directions. Author: Giannoudis PV, Faour O, Goff T. Injury. 2011 Jun;42(6):591-8.
- Meta-Analyses in Orthopaedic Surgery: A Systematic Review of Their Methodologies Author: Mohit Bhandari , MD , MSC(EPID), Farrah Morrow, BSC, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, MD, MSC(EPID), & Paul Tornetta III, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 83-A, No. 1, Jan 2001, pp 15-24
- Routine Pin Tract Care in External Fixation is Unnecessary: A Randomized, Prospective, Blinded Controlled Study. Author: Camathias C, Valderrabano V, Oberli H. Injury. 2012 Nov; 43(11):1969-73
- Cigarette Smoking Increases Complications Following Fracture: A Systematic Review. Author: Scolaro JA, Schenker ML, Yannascoli S, Baldwin K, Mehta S, Ahn J. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Apr 16;96(8):674-81.
- Orthopaedic Trauma in the Pregnant Patient Author: Kyle Flik, MD, Peter Kloen, MD, PhD, Jose B. Toro, MD, William Urmey, MD, Jan G. Nijhuis, MD, PhD, David L. Helfet, MD Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 14, No. 3, March 2006, pp 175-182
- The Effect of the Massachusetts Healthcare Reform on the Uninsured Rate of the Orthopaedic Trauma Population. Author: Toussaint RJ, Bergeron SG, Weaver MJ, Tornetta P 3rd, Vrahas MS, Harris MB J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Aug 20; 96(16)
- Factors Influencing Infection Rate in Open Fracture Wounds. Author: Patzakis MJ, Wilkins J.Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1989 Jun;(243):36-40.
- Prevention of Infection in the Treatment of One Thousand and Twenty-Five Open Fractures of Long Bones: Retrospective and Prospective Analyses. Author: Gustilo RB, Anderson JT.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1976 Jun;58(4):453-8.
- Problems in the Management of Type III (Severe) Open Fractures: A New Classification of Type III Open Fractures. Author: Gustilo RB, Mendoza RM, Williams DN. J Trauma. 1984 Aug; 24(8):742-6.
- Type III Open Tibia Fractures: Immediate Antibiotic Prophylaxis Minimizes Infection. Author: Lack WD, Karunakar MA, Angerame MR, Seymour RB, Sims S, Kellam JF, Bosse MJ. J Orthop Trauma. 2015 Jan;29(1):1-6.
- Does Timing to Operative Debridement Affect Infectious Complications in Open Long-Bone Fractures? A Systematic Review. Author: Schenker ML, Yannascoli S, Baldwin KD, Ahn J, Mehta S. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012 Jun 20;94(12):1057-64.
- Timing of closure of open fractures. Author: Weitz-Marshall AD, Bosse MJ. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2002 Nov-Dec;10(6):379-84.
- Fluid Lavage of Open Wounds (FLOW): A Multicenter, Blinded, Factorial Pilot Trial Comparing Alternative Irrigating Solutions and Pressures in Patients with Open Fractures. Author: Petrisor B, Sun X, Bhandari M, et al. J Trauma. 2011; 71(3):596-606.
- Comparison of Soap and Antibiotic Solutions for Irrigation of Lower-Limb Open Fracture Wounds: A Prospective, Randomized Study Author: Jeffrey O. Anglen, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 87-A, No. 7, July 2005, pp 1415-1422
- Mechanisms of delayed wound healing by commonly used antiseptics. Author: Thomas GW, Rael LT, Bar-Or R, et al. J Trauma. 2009 Jan;66(1):82-90; discussion 90-1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19131809
- High-pressure pulsatile lavage propagates bacteria into soft tissue. Author: Hassinger SM, Harding G, Wongworawat MD. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2005 Oct;439:27-31.
- Negative Pressure Wound Therapy After Severe Open Fractures: A Prospective Randomized Study. Author: Stannard JP, Volgas DA, Stewart R, McGwin G Jr, Alonso JE. J Orthop Trauma. 2009;23(8):552-557.
- The Effects of Surgical Fracture Fixation on the Systemic Inflammatory Response to Major Trauma Author: Ian Pallister, MBBS, MMed Sci, MD, FRCS (Tr&Orth), and Katja Empson, MB ChB, MRCS (A&E) Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 13, No. 2, March/April 2005, pp 93-100
- Treatment of Blast Injuries of the Extremity Author: Marko Bumbaširevic, MD, Aleksandar Lesic, MD, Milorad Mitkovic, MD, Vesna Bumbaširevic, MD Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 14, No. 10, 2006, pp S77-S81
- Damage Control Orthopaedics. Evolving Concepts in the Treatment of Patients Who Have Sustained Orthopaedic Trauma Author: Craig S. Roberts, Hans-Christoph Pape, Alan L. Jones, Arthur L. Malkani, Jorge L. Rodriguez and Peter V. Giannoudis Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 87-A, No. 2, Feb 2005, pp 434-449
- Initial Fracture Management and Results Author: Sean E. Nork, MD Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 19, No. 10 Supp, Nov/Dec 2005, pp S7-S10
- Timing of Fracture Fixation in Multitrauma Patients: The Role of Early Total Care and Damage Control Surgery. Author: Pape HC, Tornetta P 3rd, Tarkin I, Tzioupis C, Sabeson V, Olson SA. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2009 Sep; 17(9):541-9.
- Complications are reduced with a protocol to standardize timing of fixation based on response to resuscitation. Author: Vallier HA, Moore TA, Como JJ, et al. J Orthop Surg Res. 2015 Oct 1;10:155.