Evidence-Based Medicine Resource List: Shoulder

These articles have been recommended as excellent sources of educational information. The permission of each varies.  


  • Shoulder (Clavicle) Article: Deficits Following Nonoperative Treatment of Displaced Midshaft Clavicular Fractures Author: Michael D. McKee, Elizabeth M. Pedersen, Caroline Jones, David J.G. Stephen, Hans J. Kreder, Emil H. Schemitsch, Lisa M. Wild and Jeffrey Potter Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 88-A, No. 1, January 2006, pp 35-40
  • Shoulder (Clavicle) Article: Estimating the Risk of Nonunion Following Nonoperative Treatment of a Clavicular Fracture Author: C. Michael Robinson, Charles M. Court-Brown, Margaret M. McQueen and Alison E. Wakefield Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 86-A, No. 7, July 2004, pp 1359-1365
  • Shoulder (Clavicle) Article: Nonoperative Treatment Compared with Plate Fixation of Displaced Midshaft Clavicular Fractures: A Multicenter, Randomized Clinical Trial Author: The Canadian Orthopaedic Trauma Society Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 89-A, No. 1, Jan 2007, pp 1-10
  • Shoulder (Clavicle) Article: Open Clavicle Fractures and Associated Injuries Author: Lisa A. Taitsman, MD, MPH,* Sean E. Nork, MD,* Chad P. Coles, MD, FRCSC, w David P. Barei, MD, FRCSC,* and Julie Agel, MA, ATC* Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 20, No. 6, July 2006, pp 396-399
  • Shoulder (Clavicle) Article: Treatment of Acute Midshaft Clavicle Fractures: Systematic Review of 2144 Fractures Author: On behalf of the Evidence-Based Orthopaedic Trauma Working Group: Michael Zlowodzki, MD,* Boris A. Zelle, MD,† Peter A. Cole, MD,* Kyle Jeray, MD,‡ and Michael D. McKee, MD§ Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 19, No. 7, Aug 2005, pp 504-507
  • Shoulder (Clavicle) Article: Deficits Following Nonoperative Treatment of Displaced Midshaft Clavicular Fractures.  Author: McKee MD, Pedersen EM, Jones C, Stephen DJ, Kreder HJ, Schemitsch EH, Wild LM, Potter J.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006 Jan;88(1):35-40.
  • Shoulder (Clavicle) Article: Operative Versus Nonoperative Care of Displaced Midshaft Clavicular Fractures: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Author: McKee RC, Whelan DB, Schemitsch EH, McKee MD.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012 Apr 18;94(8):675-84.
  • Shoulder (Clavicle) Article: Open Reduction and Plate Fixation Versus Nonoperative Treatment for Displaced Midshaft Clavicular Fractures: A Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial  Author: Robinson CM, Goudie EB, Murray IR, Jenkins PJ, Ahktar MA, Read EO, Foster CJ, Clark K, Brooksbank AJ, Arthur A, Crowther MA, Packham I, Chesser TJ.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013 Sep 4; 95(17):1576-84
  • Shoulder (Clavicle) Article: Natural History of Anterior Chest Wall Numbness After Plating of Clavicle Fractures: Educating Patients.  Author: Christensen TJ, Horwitz DS, Kubiak EN.J Orthop Trauma. 2014;28(11):642-647.
  • Shoulder (Clavicle) Article: The Long-term Outcome of Displaced Mid-Third Clavicle Fractures on Scapular and Shoulder Function: Variations Between Immediate Surgery, Delayed Surgery, and Nonsurgical Management.  Author: George DM, McKay BP, Jaarsma RL.J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2014 Nov 18. pii: S1058-2746(14)00536-9.
  • Shoulder (Proximal Humerus) Article: Complications of Humeral Head Replacement for Proximal Humeral Fractures Author: Derek Plausinis, MASC, MD, Young W. Kwon, MD, PHD, and Joseph D. Zuckerman, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 87-A, No. 1, Jan 2005, pp 203-213
  • Shoulder (Proximal Humerus) Article: Nonprosthetic Management of Proximal Humeral Fractures Author: Joseph P. Iannotti, Matthew L. Ramsey, Gerald R. Williams and Jon J.P. Warner Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 85-A, No. 8, Aug 2003, pp 1578-1593
  • Shoulder (Proximal Humerus) Article: The Three-Part Fracture of the Proximal Part of the Humerus. Operative Treatment Author: RJ Hawkins, RH Bell and K Gurr Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 68-A, No. 9, Dec 1986, pp 1410-1414
  • Shoulder (Proximal Humerus) Article: Four Part Fractures of the Proximal Humerus Author: Mohit Bhandari , MD , MSc,* Gary Matthys, MD,† and Michael D. McKee MD‡ Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 18, No. 2, Feb 2004, pp 126-127
  • Shoulder (Proximal Humerus) Article:  Displaced Proximal Humeral Fractures. I. Classification and Evaluation.  Author: Neer CS II. Bone Joint Surg Am. 1970;52(6):1077-1089.
  • Shoulder (Proximal Humerus) Article:  Percutaneous Stabilization of Unstable Fractures of the Humerus. Author: Jaberg H, Warner JJ, Jakob RP. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1992;74(4):508-515.
  • Shoulder (Proximal Humerus) Article:  Hemiarthroplasty Versus Nonoperative Treatment of Displaced 4-Part Proximal Humeral Fractures in Elderly Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.  Author: Olerud P, Ahrengart L, Ponzer S, Saving J, Tidermark J. J shoulder Elbow Surg. 2011;20(7):1025-1033.
  • Shoulder (Proximal Humerus) Article:  Internal Fixation Versus Nonoperative Treatment of Displaced 3-Part Proximal Humeral Fractures in Elderly Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.  Author: Olerud P, Ahrengart L, Ponzer S, Saving J, Tidermark J. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2011;20(5):747-755.
  • Shoulder (Proximal Humerus) Article:  Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Proximal Humeral Fractures with Use of the Locking Proximal Humerus Plate. Results of a Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Study.  Author: Sudkamp N, Bayer J, Hepp P, et al.  J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009; 91(6):1320-1328.
  • Shoulder (Proximal Humerus) Article:  Hemiarthroplasty for Humeral Four-Part Fractures for Patients 65 Years and Older: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    Author: Boons HW, Goosen JH, van Grinsven S, van Susante JL, van Loon CJ.
    Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012 Dec; 470(12):3483-91
  • Shoulder (Proximal Humerus) Article:  Intermediate Outcomes Following Percutaneous Fixation of Proximal Humeral Fractures.  Author: Harrison AK, Gruson KI, Zmistowski B, Keener J, Galatz L, Williams G, Parsons BO, Flatow EL.   J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012 Jul 3;94(13):1223-8
  • Shoulder (Proximal Humerus) Article:  Surgical vs Nonsurgical Treatment of Adults with Displaced Fractures of the Proximal Humerus: the PROFHER Randomized Clinical Trial. Author: Rangan A, Handoll H, Brealey S, Jefferson L, Keding A, Martin BC, Goodchild L, Chuang LH, Hewitt C, Torgerson D; PROFHER Trial Collaborators.JAMA. 2015 Mar 10;313(10):1037-47.
  • Shoulder (Proximal Humerus) Article:  Factors that Influence Reduction Loss in Proximal Humerus Fracture Surgery.  Author: Jung SW, Shim SB, Kim HM, Lee JH, Lim HS.   J Orthop Trauma. 2014 Dec 2.
  • Shoulder (Proximal Humerus) Article:  Fracture Displacement and Screw Cutout after Open Reduction and Locked Plate Fixation of Proximal Humeral Fractures [corrected].   Author: Owsley KC, Gorczyca JT.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008 Feb;90(2):233-40.
  • Shoulder (Proximal Humerus) Article:  Meta-Analysis of Joint Preservation versus Arthroplasty for the Treatment of Displaced 3- and 4-Part Fractures of the Proximal Humerus.  Author: Gomberawalla MM, Miller BS, Coale RM, Bedi A, Gagnier JJ.   Injury. 2013 Nov; 44(11):1532-9
  • Shoulder (Proximal Humerus) Article:  Predictors of Humeral Head Ischemia after Intracapsular Fracture of the Proximal Humerus.  Author: Hertel R, Hempfing A, Stiehler M, Leunig M.    J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2004 Jul-Aug;13(4):427-33.
  • Shoulder (Scapula) Article: Scapular Fractures and Dislocations: Diagnosis and Treatment Author: Thomas P. Goss, MD Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 3, No. 1, Jan/Feb 1995, pp 22-33
  • Shoulder (Scapula) Article: Nonoperative Treatment of Ipsilateral Fractures of the Scapula and Clavicle Author: Scott G. Edwards, M.D.†, A. Paige Whittle, M.D.†, and George W. Wood, II, M.D.† Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 82-A, No. 6, June 2000, pp 774-780
  • Shoulder (Scapula) Article: The Floating Shoulder: Clinical and Functional Results Author: Kenneth A. Egol, Patrick M. Connor, Madhav A. Karunakar, Stephen H. Sims, Michael J. Bosse and James F. Kellam Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 83-A, No. 8, Aug 2001, pp 1188-1194
  • Shoulder (Scapula) Article: Double Disruptions of the Superior Shoulder Suspensory Complex Author: Thomas P. Goss Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 7, No. 2, 1993, pp 99-106
  • Shoulder (Scapula) Article: A Modified Judet Approach to the Scapula Author: William T. Obremskey, MD, MPH,* and Jeffrey R. Lyman, MD† Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 18, No. 10, Nov/Dec 2004, pp 696-699
  • Shoulder (Scapula) Article: Treatment of Scapula Fractures: Systematic Review of 520 Fractures in 22 Case Series Author: Michael Zlowodzki, MD, Mohit Bhandari, MD, MSc, Boris A. Zelle, MD, Philip J. Kregor, MD, and Peter A. Cole, MD Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 20, No. 3, March 2006, pp 230-233
  • Shoulder (Scapula Fractures) Article: Surgical and Functional Outcomes After Operative Management of Complex and Displaced Intra-Articular Glenoid Fractures. Author: Anavian J, Gauger EM, Schroder LK, Wijdicks CA, Cole PA. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94(7):645-653.
  • Shoulder (Shoulder Dislocation) Article: Management of First-Time Dislocations of the Shoulder in Patients Older than 40 Years: The Prevalence of Iatrogenic Fracture.
    Author: Atoun E, Narvani A, Even T, Dabasia H, Van Tongel A, Sforza G, Levy O.
    J Orthop Trauma. 2013 Apr; 27(4):190-3

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