Evidence-Based Medicine Resource List: Tibia

These articles have been recommended as excellent sources of educational information. The permission of each varies.  


  • Tibia (Pilon) Article: Complications After Treatment of Tibial Pilon Fractures: Prevention and Management Strategies Author: David B. Thordarson, MD Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 8, No. 4, July/Aug 2000, pp 253-265
  • Tibia (Pilon) Article: Outcomes After Treatment of High-Energy Tibial Plafond Fractures Author: Andrew N. Pollak, Melissa L. McCarthy, R. Shay Bess, Julie Agel and Marc F. Swiontkowski Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 85-A, No. 10, Oct 2003, pp 1893-1900
  • Tibia (Pilon) Article: Treatment of Distal Tibia Fractures Without Articular Involvement: A Systematic Review of 1125 Fractures   Author: Boris A. Zelle, MD,* Mohit Bhandari, MD, MSc,† Michael Espiritu, MD,* Kenneth J. Koval,‡ and Michael Zlowodzki, MD§; on behalf of the Evidence-Based Orthopaedic Trauma Working Group Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan 2006, pp 76–79
  • Tibia (Pilon) Article: Fractures of the Lower End of the Tibia into the Ankle Joint.  Author: Ruedi TP, Allgower M.  Injury. 1969; 1:92-99.
  • Tibia (Pilon) Article: A Staged Protocol for Soft Tissue Management in the Treatment of Complex Pilon Fractures. Author: Sirkin M, Sanders R, DiPasquale T, Herscovici D Jr.J Orthop Trauma. 1999;13(2):78-84.
  • Tibia (Pilon) Article: Complications Encountered in the Treatment of Pilon Fractures.  Author: McFerran MA, Smith SW, Boulas HJ, Schwartz HS. J Orthop Trauma. 1992;6(2):195-200.
  • Tibia (Pilon) Article: The Results of Early Primary Open Reduction and Internal Fixation for Treatment of OTA 43.C-type Tibial Pilon Fractures: A Cohort Study.  Author: White TO, Guy P, Cooke CJ, et al.J Orthop Trauma. 2010; 24(12):757-763.
  • Tibia (Pilon) Article: Comparison of Two-Staged ORIF and Limited Internal Fixation with External Fixator for Closed Tibial Plafond Fractures.  Author: Wang C, Li Y, Huang L, Wang M.   Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2010;130(10):1289-1297.
  • Tibia (Pilon) Article: Pilon Fractures: Treatment with Combined Internal and External Fixation.  Author: Tornetta P III, Weiner L, Bergman M, et al. J Orthop Trauma. 1993; 7(6):489-496.
  • Tibia (Pilon) Article: Entrapped Posteromedial Structures in Pilon Fractures.
    Author: Eastman JG, Firoozabadi R, Benirschke SK, Barei DP, Dunbar RP. J Orthop Trauma. 2014; 28(9):528-533.
  • Tibia (Pilon//Ex fix vs ORIF) Article: Operative Treatment of Fractures of the Tibial Plafond. A Randomized, Prospective Study Author: Brad Wyrsch, Mark A. McFerran, Mark McAndrew, Thomas J. Limbird, Marion C. Harper, Kenneth D. Johnson and Herbert S. Schwartz Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 78-A, No. 11, Nov 1996
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau) Article: High-Energy Tibial Plateau Fractures Author: Eric M. Berkson, MD and Walter W. Virkus, MD Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan 2006, pp 20-31
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau) Article: Functional Outcomes of Severe Bicondylar Tibial Plateau Fractures Treated with Dual Incisions and Medial and Lateral Plates Author: David P. Barei, MD, FRCS(C), Sean E. Nork, MD, William J. Mills, MD, Chad P. Coles, MD, FRCS(C), M. Bradford Henley, MD, and Stephen K. Benirschke, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 88-A, No. 8, Aug 2006, pp 1713-1721
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau) Article: Open Reduction and Internal Fixation Compared with Circular Fixator Application for Bicondylar Tibial Plateau Fractures: Results of a Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial Author: The Canadian Orthopaedic Trauma Society Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 88-A, No. 12, Dec 2006, pp 2613-2623
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau) Article: Comparative Fixation of Tibial Plateau Fractures Using a-BSMTM, a Calcium Phosphate Cement, Versus Cancellous Bone Graft  Author: Andrew Trenholm, BSc, MD, Scott Landry, BSc(Hon), BEng, Kyle McLaughlin, BSc, Kevin J. Deluzio, PhD, Jennifer Leighton, Kelly Trask, BEng, MSc, and Ross K. Leighton, BSc, MD, FRCS(C) Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 19, No. 10, Nov/Dec 2005, pp 698–702
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau) Article: Complications Associated With Internal Fixation of High-Energy Bicondylar Tibial Plateau Fractures Utilizing a Two-Incision Technique  Author: David P. Barei, MD, FRCS(C), Sean E. Nork, MD, William J. Mills, MD, M. Bradford Henley, MD, and Stephen K. Benirschke, MD Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 18, No. 10, Nov/Dec 2004, pp 649-657
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau) Article: The Prevalence of Soft Tissue Injuries in Nonoperative Tibial Plateau Fractures as Determined by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Author: Lane Shepherd, Karim Abdollahi, Jackson Lee, and C. Thomas Vangsness, Jr. Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 16, No. 9, pp 628–631, 2002
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau) Article: Operative Treatment of Extra-Articular Proximal Tibial Fractures Author: Mohit Bhandari , MD, Laurent Audige, PhD, Thomas Ellis, MD, and Beate Hanson, MD, on behalf of the Evidence-Based Orthopaedic Trauma Working Group Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 17, No. 8, Sept 2003, pp 591-59
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau Fractures) Article: Tibial Condylar Fractures. A Twenty-Year Follow-up. Author: Lansinger O, Bergman B, Körner L, Andersson GB.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1986 Jan;68(1):13-9.
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau Fractures) Article: Tibial Condylar Fractures. Impairment of Knee Joint Stability as an Indication for Surgical Treatment.    Author: Rasmussen PS.     J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1973 Oct;55(7):1331-50.
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau Fractures) Article: The Long-Term Functional Outcome of Operatively Treated Tibial Plateau Fractures.     Author: Stevens DG, Beharry R, McKee MD, Waddell JP, Schemitsch EH.
    J Orthop Trauma. 2001 Jun-Jul;15(5):312-20.
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau Fractures) Article: Operative Treatment of 109 Tibial Plateau Fractures: Five- to 27-Year Follow-up Results.  Author: Aademakers MV, Kerkhoffs GM, Sierevelt IN, Raaymakers EL, Marti RK.J Orthop Trauma. 2007 Jan;21(1):5-10. Erratum in: J Orthop Trauma. 2007 Mar;21(3):218. 
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau Fractures) Article: Definitve Plates Overlapping Provisional External Fixator Pin Sites: Is the Infection Risk Increased?  Author: Shah CM, Babb PE, McAndrew CM, et al.J Orthop Trauma. 2014;28(9):518-522.
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 for Treatment of Open Tibial Fractures: a Prospective, Controlled, Randomized Study of Four Hundred and Fifty Patients Author: The BMP-2 Evaluation in Surgery for Tibial Trauma (BESTT) Study Group  Author:Shunmugam Govender, MD, Cristina Csimma, RPH, MHP, Harry K. Genant, MD, and Alexandre Valentin-Opran, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 84-A, No. 12, Dec 2002, pp 2123-2134
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Open Tibial Fractures: a Subgroup Analysis of Data Combined from Two Prospective Randomized Studies Author: Marc F. Swiontkowski, MD, Hannu T. Aro, MD, PHD, Simondonell, MD, John L. Esterhai, MD, James Goulet, MD, Alan Jones, MD, Philip J. Kregor, MD, Lars Nordsletten, MD, PHD, Guy Paiement, MD, & Amratlal Patel, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 88-A, No. 6, June 2006, pp 1258-1265
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Recombinant Human BMP-2 and Allograft Compared with Autogenous Bone Graft for Reconstruction of Diaphyseal Tibial Fractures with Cortical Defects: A Randomized, Controlled Trial Author: Alan L. Jones, MD, Robert W. Bucholz, MD, Michael J. Bosse, MD, Sohail K. Mirza, MD, MPH, Thomas R. Lyon, MD, Lawrence X. Webb, MD, Andrew N. Pollak, MD, Jane Davis Golden, PT, MHP, & Alexandre Valentin-Opran, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 88-A, No. 7, July 2006, pp 1431-1441
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Treatment of Closed Tibial Fractures Author: Andrew H. Schmidt, MD, Christopher G. Finkemeier, MD, MBA, & Paul Tornetta III, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 85-A, No. 2, Feb 2003, pp 351-368
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Intramedullary Nailing of Distal Metaphyseal Tibial Fractures Author: Sean E. Nork, Alexandra K. Schwartz, Julie Agel, Sarah K. Holt, Jason L. Schrick, & Robert A. Winquist Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 87-A, No. 6, June 2005, pp 1213-1221
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Long-Term Outcome After Tibial Shaft Fracture: Is Malunion Important? Author: S.A. Milner, FRCS(TR & ORTH), T.R.C. Davis, FRCS, K.R. Muir, PHD, D.C. Greenwood, MSC, and M. Doherty, FRCP Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 84-A, No. 6, June 2002, pp 971-980
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Nonunion Following Intramedullary Nailing of the Femur with and without Reaming: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial Author: The Canadian Orthopaedic Trauma Society Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 85-A, No. 11, Nov 2003, pp 2093-2096
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Fractures of the Proximal Third of the Tibial Shaft Treated With Intramedullary Nails and Blocking Screws   Author: William M. Ricci, *Michael O’Boyle, Joseph Borrelli, †Carlo Bellabarba, & ‡ Roy Sanders Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 15, No. 4, pp 264–270, 2001
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Intramedullary Nailing of Proximal Quarter Tibial Fractures Author: Sean E. Nork, MD,* David P. Barei, MD, FRCS(C),* Thomas A. Schildhauer, MD,† Julie Agel, MA,* Sarah K. Holt, MPH,* Jason L. Schrick, BS,* and Bruce J. Sangeorzan, MD* Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 20, No. 8, Sept 2006, pp 523-528
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Current Practice in the Intramedullary Nailing of Tibial Shaft Fractures: An International Survey Author: Mohit Bhandari, MD, MSc, Gordon H. Guyatt, MD, MSc, Paul Tornetta III, MD, Marc F. Swiontkowski, MD, Beate Hanson, MD, Sheila Sprague, BSc, Amena Syed, BSc, and Emil H. Schemitsch, MD Journal: TRAUMA Volume: Vol. 53, No. 4, pp 725-732
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Distal Metaphyseal Fractures of Tibia: A Prospective Randomized Trial of Closed Reduction and Intramedullary Nail Versus Open Reduction and Plate and Screws Fixation Author: Gun-Il Im MD, and Suk-Kee Tae, MD Journal: TRAUMA Volume: Vol. 59, No. 5, pp 1219-1223 
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft Fractures) Article: Fractures of the Middle Third of the Tibia Treated with a Functional Brace. Author: Sarmiento A, Latta LL.   Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466(12):3108-3115. 
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft Fractures) Article: Randomized Trial of Reamed and Unreamed Intramedullary Nailing of Tibial Shaft Fractures. Author: SPRINT Investigators; Bhandari M, Guyatt G, Tornetta P III.  J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008; 90(12):2567-2578.
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft Fractures) Article: Reamed Versus Nonreamed Intramedullary Nailing of Lower Extremity Long Bone Fractures: A Systematic Overview and Meta-Analysis.   Author: Bhandari M, Guyatt GH, Tong D, Adili A, Shaughnessy SG.  J Orthop Trauma. 2000;14(1):2-9.
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft Fractures) Article: Prognostic Factors for Predicting Outcomes After Intramedullary Nailing of the Tibia. Author: Schemitsch EH, Bhandari M, Guyatt G, Sanders DW, Swiontkowski M, Tornetta P, Walter SD, Zdero R, Goslings JC, Teague D, Jeray K, McKee MD; Study to Prospectively Evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in Patients with Tibial Fractures Author: (SPRINT) Investigators.  J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012 Oct 3; 94(19):1786-93. 
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft Fractures) Article: Critical-Sized Defect in the Tibia: Is it Critical? Results From the SPRINT Trial. Author: Sanders DW, Bhandari M, Guyatt G, et al. J Orthop Trauma. 2014;28(11):632-635.
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft Fractures) Article: Semi-Extended Nailing of Metaphyseal Tibia Fractures: Alignment and Incidence of Postoperative Knee Pain.   Author: Ryan SP, Steen B, Tornetta P III. J Orthop Trauma. 2014;28(5):263-269.
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft Fractures) Article: Semiextended Intramedullary Nailing of the Tibia Using a Suprapatellar Approach: Radiographic Results and Clinical Outcomes at a Minimum of 12 Months Follow-up.  Author: Sanders RW, DiPasquale TG, Jorday CJ, Arrington JA, Sagi HC.  J Orthop Trauma. 2014;28(5):245-255.  
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft Fractures) Article: Plate Versus Nail for Distal Tibial Fractures: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.  Kwok CS, Crossman PT, Loizou CL.   J Orthop Trauma. 2014 Sep;28(9):542-8.
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft Fractures) Article: Randomized, Prospective Comparison of Plate Versus Intramedullary Nail Fixation for Distal Tibia Shaft Fractures.  Author: Vallier HA, Cureton BA, Patterson BM.    J Orthop Trauma. 2011;25(12):736-741.
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft Fractures) Article: An Analysis of Outcomes of Reconstruction or Amputation After Leg-Threatening Injuries.   Author: Bosse MJ, MacKenzie EJ, Kellam JF, et al. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(24):1924-1931.
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft// Ultrasound w IMN) Article: No Effect of Low-Intensity Ultrasound on Healing Time of Intramedullary Fixed Tibial Fractures  Author: Emami, Abbas; Petrén-Mallmin, Marianne*; Larsson, Sune Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 13, No. 4, May 1999, pp 252-257
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft//Traction vs. Free Leg) Article: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Tibial Nailing Using Fracture Table Traction Versus Manual Traction Author: McKee, Michael D.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Waddell, James P.; Yoo, Daniel Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 13, No. 7, Sept/Oct 1999, pp 463-469

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