Evidence-Based Medicine Resource List: Tibia

These articles have been recommended as excellent sources of educational information. The permission of each varies.  The JBJS (British) has given permission to directly link to articles published prior to 2002.  Often the permission was granted to OTA members only.  For these articles, a member will find access to the article after signing into the members only page link provided.  All East Journal articles will have a link to the East Guidelines website, rather than the article. Additional updates regarding the journal articles will be available as further permissions are granted.


  • Tibia (Pilon) Article: Complications After Treatment of Tibial Pilon Fractures: Prevention and Management Strategies Author: David B. Thordarson, MD Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 8, No. 4, July/Aug 2000, pp 253-265
  • Tibia (Pilon) Article: Instructional Course Lectures, The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - Fractures of the Ankle and the Distal Part of the Tibia*{{dagger}} Author: Robert Vander Griend, James D. Michelson and Larry B. Bone Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 78-A, No. 11, Nov 1996
  • Tibia (Pilon) Article: Outcomes After Treatment of High-Energy Tibial Plafond Fractures Author: Andrew N. Pollak, Melissa L. McCarthy, R. Shay Bess, Julie Agel and Marc F. Swiontkowski Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 85-A, No. 10, Oct 2003, pp 1893-1900
  • Tibia (Pilon) Article: Tibial Plafond Fractures Treated by Articulated External Fixation: A Randomized Trial of Postoperative Motion Versus Nonmotion Permission to Access Article: OTA Members Only Author: J. L. Marsh, MD,* V. Muehling, MS,* D. Dirschl, MD,† S. Hurwitz, MD,‡ T. D. Brown, PhD,* and J. Nepola, MD* Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 20, No. 8, Sept 2006, pp 536-541
  • Tibia (Pilon) Article: Surgical Options for the Treatment of Severe Tibial Pilon Fractures: A Study of Three Techniques  Permission to Access Article: OTA Members Only Author: M. Blauth, L. Bastian, C. Krettek, C. Knop, and *S. Evans Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 15, No. 3, pp 153–160, 2001
  • Tibia (Pilon) Article: Treatment of Distal Tibia Fractures Without Articular Involvement: A Systematic Review of 1125 Fractures  Permission to Access Article: OTA Members Only Author: Boris A. Zelle, MD,* Mohit Bhandari, MD, MSc,† Michael Espiritu, MD,* Kenneth J. Koval,‡ and Michael Zlowodzki, MD§; on behalf of the Evidence-Based Orthopaedic Trauma Working Group Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan 2006, pp 76–79
  • Tibia (Pilon//Ex fix vs ORIF) Article: Operative Treatment of Fractures of the Tibial Plafond. A Randomized, Prospective Study Author: Brad Wyrsch, Mark A. McFerran, Mark McAndrew, Thomas J. Limbird, Marion C. Harper, Kenneth D. Johnson and Herbert S. Schwartz Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 78-A, No. 11, Nov 1996
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau) Article: High-Energy Tibial Plateau Fractures Author: Eric M. Berkson, MD and Walter W. Virkus, MD Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan 2006, pp 20-31
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau) Article: Functional Outcomes of Severe Bicondylar Tibial Plateau Fractures Treated with Dual Incisions and Medial and Lateral Plates Author: David P. Barei, MD, FRCS(C), Sean E. Nork, MD, William J. Mills, MD, Chad P. Coles, MD, FRCS(C), M. Bradford Henley, MD, and Stephen K. Benirschke, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 88-A, No. 8, Aug 2006, pp 1713-1721
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau) Article: Open Reduction and Internal Fixation Compared with Circular Fixator Application for Bicondylar Tibial Plateau Fractures: Results of a Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial Author: The Canadian Orthopaedic Trauma Society Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 88-A, No. 12, Dec 2006, pp 2613-2623
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau) Article: Comparative Fixation of Tibial Plateau Fractures Using a-BSMTM, a Calcium Phosphate Cement, Versus Cancellous Bone Graft Permission to Access Article: OTA Members Only Author: Andrew Trenholm, BSc, MD, Scott Landry, BSc(Hon), BEng, Kyle McLaughlin, BSc, Kevin J. Deluzio, PhD, Jennifer Leighton, Kelly Trask, BEng, MSc, and Ross K. Leighton, BSc, MD, FRCS(C) Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 19, No. 10, Nov/Dec 2005, pp 698–702
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau) Article: Complications Associated With Internal Fixation of High-Energy Bicondylar Tibial Plateau Fractures Utilizing a Two-Incision Technique Permission to Access Article: OTA Members Only Author: David P. Barei, MD, FRCS(C), Sean E. Nork, MD, William J. Mills, MD, M. Bradford Henley, MD, and Stephen K. Benirschke, MD Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 18, No. 10, Nov/Dec 2004, pp 649-657
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau) Article: The Prevalence of Soft Tissue Injuries in Nonoperative Tibial Plateau Fractures as Determined by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Permission to Access Article: OTA Members Only Author: Lane Shepherd, Karim Abdollahi, Jackson Lee, and C. Thomas Vangsness, Jr. Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 16, No. 9, pp 628–631, 2002
  • Tibia (Tibial Plateau) Article: Operative Treatment of Extra-Articular Proximal Tibial Fractures Permission to Access Article: OTA Members Only Author: Mohit Bhandari , MD, Laurent Audige, PhD, Thomas Ellis, MD, and Beate Hanson, MD, on behalf of the Evidence-Based Orthopaedic Trauma Working Group Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 17, No. 8, Sept 2003, pp 591-595
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 for Treatment of Open Tibial Fractures: a Prospective, Controlled, Randomized Study of Four Hundred and Fifty Patients Author: The BMP-2 Evaluation in Surgery for Tibial Trauma (BESTT) Study Group, Shunmugam Govender, MD, Cristina Csimma, RPH, MHP, Harry K. Genant, MD, and Alexandre Valentin-Opran, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 84-A, No. 12, Dec 2002, pp 2123-2134
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Open Tibial Fractures: a Subgroup Analysis of Data Combined from Two Prospective Randomized Studies Author: Marc F. Swiontkowski, MD, Hannu T. Aro, MD, PHD, Simondonell, MD, John L. Esterhai, MD, James Goulet, MD, Alan Jones, MD, Philip J. Kregor, MD, Lars Nordsletten, MD, PHD, Guy Paiement, MD, & Amratlal Patel, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 88-A, No. 6, June 2006, pp 1258-1265
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Recombinant Human BMP-2 and Allograft Compared with Autogenous Bone Graft for Reconstruction of Diaphyseal Tibial Fractures with Cortical Defects: A Randomized, Controlled Trial Author: Alan L. Jones, MD, Robert W. Bucholz, MD, Michael J. Bosse, MD, Sohail K. Mirza, MD, MPH, Thomas R. Lyon, MD, Lawrence X. Webb, MD, Andrew N. Pollak, MD, Jane Davis Golden, PT, MHP, & Alexandre Valentin-Opran, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 88-A, No. 7, July 2006, pp 1431-1441
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Instructional Course Lectures, The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - Open Fractures of the Tibial Shaft. Current Treatment*{{dagger}} Author: Steven A. Olson Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 78-A, No. 9, Sept 1996
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Treatment of Closed Tibial Fractures Author: Andrew H. Schmidt, MD, Christopher G. Finkemeier, MD, MBA, & Paul Tornetta III, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 85-A, No. 2, Feb 2003, pp 351-368
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Intramedullary Nailing of Distal Metaphyseal Tibial FracturesAuthor: Sean E. Nork, Alexandra K. Schwartz, Julie Agel, Sarah K. Holt, Jason L. Schrick, & Robert A. Winquist Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 87-A, No. 6, June 2005, pp 1213-1221
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Long-Term Outcome After Tibial Shaft Fracture: Is Malunion Important? Author: S.A. Milner, FRCS(TR & ORTH), T.R.C. Davis, FRCS, K.R. Muir, PHD, D.C. Greenwood, MSC, and M. Doherty, FRCP Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 84-A, No. 6, June 2002, pp 971-980
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Nonunion Following Intramedullary Nailing of the Femur with and without Reaming: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial Author: The Canadian Orthopaedic Trauma Society Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 85-A, No. 11, Nov 2003, pp 2093-2096
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Fractures of the Proximal Third of the Tibial Shaft Treated With Intramedullary Nails and Blocking Screws  Permission to Access Article: OTA Members Only Author: William M. Ricci, *Michael O’Boyle, Joseph Borrelli, †Carlo Bellabarba, & ‡ Roy Sanders Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 15, No. 4, pp 264–270, 2001
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Intramedullary Nailing of Proximal Quarter Tibial Fractures Author: Sean E. Nork, MD,* David P. Barei, MD, FRCS(C),* Thomas A. Schildhauer, MD,† Julie Agel, MA,* Sarah K. Holt, MPH,* Jason L. Schrick, BS,* and Bruce J. Sangeorzan, MD*  Permission to Access Article: OTA Members Only Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 20, No. 8, Sept 2006, pp 523-528
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Current Practice in the Intramedullary Nailing of Tibial Shaft Fractures: An International Survey Author: Mohit Bhandari, MD, MSc, Gordon H. Guyatt, MD, MSc, Paul Tornetta III, MD, Marc F. Swiontkowski, MD, Beate Hanson, MD, Sheila Sprague, BSc, Amena Syed, BSc, and Emil H. Schemitsch, MD Journal: TRAUMA Volume: Vol. 53, No. 4, pp 725-732
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft) Article: Distal Metaphyseal Fractures of Tibia: A Prospective Randomized Trial of Closed Reduction and Intramedullary Nail Versus Open Reduction and Plate and Screws Fixation Author: Gun-Il Im MD, and Suk-Kee Tae, MD Journal: TRAUMA Volume: Vol. 59, No. 5, pp 1219-1223
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft// Ultrasound w IMN) Article: No Effect of Low-Intensity Ultrasound on Healing Time of Intramedullary Fixed Tibial Fractures  Permission to Access Article: OTA Members Only Author: Emami, Abbas; Petrén-Mallmin, Marianne*; Larsson, Sune Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 13, No. 4, May 1999, pp 252-257
  • Tibia (Tibial Shaft//Traction vs. Free Leg) Article: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Tibial Nailing Using Fracture Table Traction Versus Manual Traction  Permission to Access Article: OTA Members Only Author: McKee, Michael D.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Waddell, James P.; Yoo, Daniel Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 13, No. 7, Sept/Oct 1999, pp 463-469

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