Evidence-Based Medicine Resource List: General

These articles have been recommended as excellent sources of educational information. The permission of each varies.  


  • General (DVT) Article: Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism: The Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy Author: William H. Geerts, MD, FCCP; Graham F. Pineo, MD; John A. Heit, MD; David Bergqvist, MD, PhD; Michael R. Lassen, MD; Clifford W. Colwell, MD; and Joel G. Ray, MD, MSc Journal: 7th ACCP Conference Volume: pp 338S-400S, Sept 2004 Supplement
  • General (DVT) Article: Mechanical Prophylaxis Against Deep-Vein Thrombosis After Pelvic and Acetabular Fractures Author: James P. Stannard, MD, Reneé S. Riley, MD, Michelle D. McClenney, RN, Robert R. Lopez-Ben, MD David A. Volgas, MD, Jorge E. Alonso, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 83-A, No. 7, July 2001, pp 1047-1051
  • General (DVT) Article: Prevention of Pulmonary Embolism and Deep Vein Thrombosis with Low Dose Aspirin: Pulmonary Embolism Prevention (PEP) Trial Author: Pulmonary Embolism Prevention (PEP) Trial Collaborative Group* Journal: The Lancet Volume: Vol. 355, April 15, 2000, pp 1295-1302
  • General (DVT) Article: Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Hip Fractures: A Comparison of the Arteriovenous Impulse System and Aspirin Author: John G. Kennedy, MMSc, FRCSI, Karen E. Soffe, MB, BSc, Blake W. Rogers, MD, Sunil Kumar, FRCS, Denis R. Griffen, MD, Pietro A. Dallo Vedova, MD, Raymond J. Sullivan, MD, and Lester J. Sheehan, MD Journal: TRAUMA Volume: Vol. 48, No. 2, pp 268-272, 2000
  • General (DVT) Article: Treatment and Complications in Orthopaedic Trauma Patients with Symptomatic Pulmonary Embolism.    Author: Bogdan Y, Tornetta P III, Leighton R, et al.   J Orthop Trauma. 2014;28(supplement 1):S6-S9.

  • General (East Guidelines) Article: East Practice Management Guidelines Work Group: Practice Management Guidelines for Prophylactic Antibiotic Use in Open Fractures * Author: Fred A. Luchette, MD, Lawrence B. Bone, MD, Christopher T. Born, MD, William G. DeLong, Jr., MD, William S. Hoff, MD, Daniel Mullins, PhD, Francis Palumbo, PhD, JD, Michael D. Pasquale, MD Journal: EAST Volume: © 2000, pp 1-28 * Permission to article granted by EAST
  • General (East Guidelines) Article: Practice Management Guidelines for Identifying Cervical Spine Injuries Following Trauma Author: EAST Practice Parameter Workgroup for Cervical Spine Clearance: Donald W. Marion, MD, Chairman (Neurosurgery), Robert Domeier, MD (Emergency Medicine), C. Michael Dunham, MD (General Surgery), Fred A. Luchette, MD (General Surgery), Regis Haid, MD (Neuros Journal: EAST Volume: © 1998, pp 1-14 * Permission to article granted by EAST
  • General (East Guidelines) Article: Determination of Cervical Spine Stability in Trauma Patients (Update of the 1997 EAST Cervical Spine Clearance Document) Author: Cervical Spine Clearance Committee: Donald Marion, Robert Domeier, C. Michael Dunham, Fred Luchette, Regis Haid Journal: EAST Volume: © 2000, pp 1-9 * Permission to article granted by EAST
  • General (East Guidelines) Article: Clinical Practice Guideline: Endpoints of Resuscitation Author: Samuel A. Tisherman, MD, FACS, Philip Barie, MD, FACS, Faran Bokhari, MD, FACS, John Bonadies , MD, FACS, Brian Daley, MD, FACS, Lawrence Diebel, MD, FACS, Soumitra R. Eachempati, MD, FACS, Stanley Kurek, DO, Fred A. Luchette, MD, FACS, Juan Carlos Puyana Journal: EAST Volume: © 2003, pp 1-28 * Permission to article granted by EAST
  • General (East Guidelines) Article: Utilizing Evidence Based Outcome Measures to Develop Practice Management Guidelines: A Primer Author: Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) Ad Hoc Committee on Practice Management Guideline Development 2000 Journal: EAST Volume: © 2000 * Permission to article granted by EAST
  • General (East Guidelines) Article: Practice Management Guidelines for Hemorrhage in Pelvic Fracture Author: J. Christopher DiGiacomo, MD, John A. Bonadies, MD, Frederic J. Cole, MD, Lawrence Diebel, MD, William S. Hoff, MD, Michele Holevar, MD, John Malcynski, MD, Thomas Scalea, MD Journal: EAST Volume: © 2001, pp 1-15 * Permission to article granted by EAST
  • General (East Guidelines) Article: Practice Management Guidelines for the Management of Venous Thromboembolism in Trauma Patients Author: EAST Practice Parameter Workgroup for DVT Prophylaxis: Frederick B. Rogers, MD, FACS, Mark D. Cipolle, MD, Ph.D., George Velmahos, MD, Ph.D., Grace Rozycki, MD Journal: EAST Volume: www.east.org * Permission to article granted by EAST
  • General (East Guidelines) Article: Practice Management Guidelines for Nutritional Support of the Trauma Patient Author: David G. Jacobs, MD, Danny O. Jacobs, MD, Kenneth A. Kudsk, MD, Frederick A. Moore, MD, Michael F. Oswanski, MD, Galen V. Poole, MD, Gordon S. Sacks, PharmD, L.R. “Tres” Scherer, III, MD, and Karlene E. Sinclair, MD Journal: EAST Volume: © 2003, pp 1-93 * Permission to article granted by EAST
  • General (East Guidelines) Article: Practice Management Guidelines for Penetrating Trauma to the Lower Extremity Author: Abenamar Arrillaga, MD ( Greenville Memorial Hospital, Greenville, SC), Raymond Bynoe, MD ( Richland Memorial Hospital, Columbia, SC), Eric R. Frykberg, MD (U of Florida Health Science Center), Kimberly Nagy, MD ( Cook County Hospital, Chicago, IL) Journal: EAST Volume: www.east.org * Permission to article granted by EAST
  • General (East Guidelines) Article: Practice Management Guidelines for Violence Prevention Programs Author: Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Journal: EAST Volume: © 1998, pp 1-8 * Permission to article granted by EAST
  • General (Fracture Healing) Article: The Musculoskeletal Effects of Smoking Author: Scott E. Porter, MD, and Edward N. Hanley, Jr, MD Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan/Feb 2001
  • General (Fracture Healing) Article: Biological Basis of Fracture Healing Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 19, No. 10 Supp, Nov/Dec 2005, pp S1-S3
  • General (Fracture Healing) Article: Overview of Biologics  Author: J. Tracy Watson, MD Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 19, No. 10 Supp, Nov/Dec 2005, pp S14-S16
  • General (Fracture Healing) Article: The Science of Fracture Healing Author: Thomas A. Einhorn, MD  Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 19, No. 10 Supp, Nov/Dec 2005, pp S4-S6
  • General (General) Article: Acute Compartment Syndrome in Lower Extremity Musculoskeletal Trauma Author: Steven A. Olson, MD, and Robert R. Glasgow, MD Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 13, pp 436-444, 2005
  • General (General) Article: Ballistics and Gunshot Wounds: Effects on Musculoskeletal Tissues Author: Craig S. Bartlett, MD, David L. Helfet, MD, Michael R. Hausman, MD, and Elton Strauss, MD Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan/Feb 2000, pp 21-36
  • General (General) Article: Hardware Removal: Indications and Expectations Author: Matthew L. Busam, MD*, Robert J. Esther, MD, MSc*, William T. Obremskey, MD, MPH Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 14, No. 2, Feb 2006, pp 113-120
  • General (General) Article: Functional Outcomes Following Trauma-Related Lower-Extremity Amputation Author: Ellen J. MacKenzie, Michael J. Bosse, Renan C. Castillo, Douglas G. Smith, Lawrence X. Webb, James F. Kellam, Andrew R. Burgess, Marc F. Swiontkowski, Roy W. Sanders, Alan L. Jones, Mark P. McAndrew, Brendan M. Patterson, Thomas G. Travison, and Melissa L Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 86-A, No. 8, Aug 2004, pp 1636-1645
  • General (Open Fractures) Article: Factors Influencing Infection Rate in Open Fracture Wounds.   Author: Patzakis MJ, Wilkins J.Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1989 Jun;(243):36-40.
  • General (Open Fractures) Article: Prevention of Infection in the Treatment of One Thousand and Twenty-Five Open Fractures of Long Bones: Retrospective and Prospective Analyses.   Author: Gustilo RB, Anderson JT.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1976 Jun;58(4):453-8.
  • General (Open Fractures) Article: Problems in the Management of Type III (Severe) Open Fractures: A New Classification of Type III Open Fractures.  Author: Gustilo RB, Mendoza RM, Williams DN.    J Trauma. 1984 Aug; 24(8):742-6.
  • General (Open Fractures) Article: Type III Open Tibia Fractures: Immediate Antibiotic Prophylaxis Minimizes Infection.   Author: Lack WD, Karunakar MA, Angerame MR, Seymour RB, Sims S, Kellam JF, Bosse MJ.    J Orthop Trauma. 2015 Jan;29(1):1-6.
  • General (Open Fractures) Article: Does Timing to Operative Debridement Affect Infectious Complications in Open Long-Bone Fractures? A Systematic Review.     Author: Schenker ML, Yannascoli S, Baldwin KD, Ahn J, Mehta S.     J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012 Jun 20;94(12):1057-64.
  • General (Open Fractures) Article: Fluid Lavage of Open Wounds (FLOW): A Multicenter, Blinded, Factorial Pilot Trial Comparing Alternative Irrigating Solutions and Pressures in Patients with Open Fractures.
    Author: Petrisor B, Sun X, Bhandari M, et al.    J Trauma. 2011; 71(3):596-606.
  • General (Open Fractures) Article: Negative Pressure Wound Therapy After Severe Open Fractures: A Prospective Randomized Study.   Author: Stannard JP, Volgas DA, Stewart R, McGwin G Jr, Alonso JE.
    J Orthop Trauma. 2009;23(8):552-557.

  • General (HO) Article: Orthopaedic Research Society Special Article: Heterotopic Ossification Author: Frederick S. Kaplan, MD, David L. Glaser, MD, Nader Hebela, MD, and Eileen M. Shore, PhD Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 12, No. 2, March/April 2004, pp 116-125
  • General (Infection) Article: Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Hip Fracture Surgery: A Metaanalysis Author: James P. Southwell-Keely, BVSc, MBBS,* Robert R. Russo, B App Sc (Phty), MBBS,** Lyn March, MBBS, MSc, PhD,† Robert Cumming, MBBS, PhD,‡ Ian Cameron, MBBS, PhD,§ & Alan J. M. Brnabic, BA Dip Ed, MappStats Journal: CORR Volume: No. 419, Feb 2004, pp 179–184
  • General (Infection) Article: Antibiotic Therapy for Musculoskeletal Infections Author: Jon T. Mader, Jue Wang and Jason H. Calhoun Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 83-A, No. 12, Dec 2001, pp 1878-1890 General (Infection) Article: The Effect of Surgical Delay on Acute Infection Following 554 Open Fractures in Children Author: David L. Skaggs, Lauren Friend, Benjamin Alman, Henry G. Chambers, Michael Schmitz, Brett Leake, Robert M. Kay and John M. Flynn Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 87-A, No. 1, Jan 2005, pp 8-12
  • General (Infection//Antibiotics) Article: Once Daily, High Dose Versus Divided, Low Dose Gentamicin for Open Fractures Author: Joel I. Sorger, MD*; Patrick G.Kirk, MD*; Christopher J. Ruhnke, MD*; Stephen H. Bjornson, MD, PhD**; Martin S. Levy, PhDf; James Cockrin, PhDf; Peter Tang, AB$ Journal: CORR Volume: No. 366, Sept 1999, pp 197-204
  • General (Infection//Antibiotics) Article: Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study Comparing Single-Agent Antibiotic Therapy, Ciprofloxacin, to Combination Antibiotic Therapy in Open Fracture Wounds uthor: Patzakis, Michael J.; Bains, Ravi S.; Lee, Jackson; Shepherd, Lane; Singer, Gordon; Ressler, Ron; Harvey, Frances; Holtom, Paul Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 14, No. 8, Nov 2000, pp 529-533
  • General (Infection//Antibiotics/Prophyaxis) Article: Randomised Controlled Trial of Single-Dose Antibiotic Prophylaxisin Surgical Treatment of Closed Fractures: the Dutch Trauma Trial Author: Han Boxma, Tom Broekhuizen, Peter Patka, Hans Oosting* Journal: The Lancet Volume: Vol. 347, April 27, 1996, pp 1133-1137
  • General (Infection//GSW and fxs) Article: Comparison of Intravenous and Oral Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Fractures Caused by Low-Velocity Gunshots. A Prospective, Randomized Study of Infection Rates Author: Thomas P. Knapp, Michael J. Patzakis, Jackson Lee, Peter R. Seipel, Karim Abdollahi, and Robert B. Reisch Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 78-A, No. 8, Aug 1996
  • General (Irrigation) Article: Comparison of Soap and Antibiotic Solutions for Irrigation of Lower-Limb Open Fracture Wounds: A Prospective, Randomized Study Author: Jeffrey O. Anglen, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 87-A, No. 7, July 2005, pp 1415-1422
  • General (Metanalysis) Article: Meta-Analyses in Orthopaedic Surgery: A Systematic Review of Their Methodologies Author: Mohit Bhandari , MD , MSC(EPID), Farrah Morrow, BSC, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, MD, MSC(EPID), & Paul Tornetta III, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 83-A, No. 1, Jan 2001, pp 15-24
  • General (Multiple Trauma) Article: Orthopaedic Trauma in the Pregnant Patient Author: Kyle Flik, MD, Peter Kloen, MD, PhD, Jose B. Toro, MD, William Urmey, MD, Jan G. Nijhuis, MD, PhD, David L. Helfet, MD Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 14, No. 3, March 2006, pp 175-182
  • General (Multiple Trauma) Article: The Effects of Surgical Fracture Fixation on the Systemic Inflammatory Response to Major Trauma Author: Ian Pallister, MBBS, MMed Sci, MD, FRCS (Tr&Orth), and Katja Empson, MB ChB, MRCS (A&E) Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 13, No. 2, March/April 2005, pp 93-100
  • General (Multiple Trauma) Article: Treatment of Blast Injuries of the Extremity Author: Marko Bumbaširevic´ , MD, Aleksandar Lesic, MD, Milorad Mitkovic, MD, Vesna Bumbaširevic´, MD Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 14, No. 10, 2006, pp S77-S81
  • General (Multiple Trauma) Article: Damage Control Orthopaedics. Evolving Concepts in the Treatment of Patients Who Have Sustained Orthopaedic Trauma Author: Craig S. Roberts, Hans-Christoph Pape, Alan L. Jones, Arthur L. Malkani, Jorge L. Rodriguez and Peter V. Giannoudis Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 87-A, No. 2, Feb 2005, pp 434-449
  • General (Multiple Trauma) Article: Initial Fracture Management and Results  Author: Sean E. Nork, MD Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 19, No. 10 Supp, Nov/Dec 2005, pp S7-S10
  • General (ExFix Pin Site Care) Article: Routine Pin Tract Care in External Fixation is Unnecessary: A Randomized, Prospective, Blinded Controlled Study.   Author: Camathias C, Valderrabano V, Oberli H.         Injury. 2012 Nov; 43(11):1969-73
  • General (NSAIDS) Article: Heterotopic Ossification Prophylaxis with Indomethacin Increases the Risk of Long-bone Nonunion Author: T. A. Burd, M. S. Hughes, J. O. Anglen (from the University of Missouri, Columbia, USA) Journal: JBJS(Br) Volume: Vol. 85-B, pp 700-705, 2003
  • General (Nonunion) Article: Preoperative Diagnosis of Infection in Patients with Nonunions.
    Author: Stucken C, Olszewski DC, Creevy WR, Murakami AM, Tornetta P   J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013 Aug 7;95(15):1409-12.
  • General (Smoking) Article: Cigarette Smoking Increases Complications Following Fracture: A Systematic Review.   Author: Scolaro JA, Schenker ML, Yannascoli S, Baldwin K, Mehta S, Ahn J.
    J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Apr 16;96(8):674-81.
  • General (Polytrauma) Article: Timing of Fracture Fixation in Multitrauma Patients: The Role of Early Total Care and Damage Control Surgery.   Author: Pape HC, Tornetta P 3rd, Tarkin I, Tzioupis C, Sabeson V, Olson SA.
    J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2009 Sep; 17(9):541-9.
  • General (Health Politics) Article: The Effect of the Massachusetts Healthcare Reform on the Uninsured Rate of the Orthopaedic Trauma Population.  Author: Toussaint RJ, Bergeron SG, Weaver MJ, Tornetta P 3rd, Vrahas MS, Harris MB    J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Aug 20; 96(16)

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