Evidence-Based Medicine Resource List: Femur

These articles have been recommended as excellent sources of educational information. The permission of each varies.  


  • Femur (Distal Femur Fractures) Article: Biomechanical Evaluation of the Less Invasive Stabilization System, Angled Blade Plate, and Retrograde Intramedullary Nail for the Internal Fixation of Distal Femur Fractures Author: Michael Zlowodzki, MD,* Scott Williamson, BS,† Peter A. Cole, MD,* Lyle D. Zardiackas, PhD,& Philip J. Kregor Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 18, No. 8, Sept 2004
  • Femur (Distal Femur Fractures) Article: The Results of Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Distal Femur Fractures Using a Biologic (Indirect) Reduction TechniqueAuthor: Bolhofner, Brett R.*; Carmen, Barbara; Clifford, Philip† Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 10, No. 6, Aug 1996, pp 372-377
  • Femur (Distal Femur Fractures) Article: Operative Treatment of Acute Distal Femur Fractures: Systematic Review of 2 Comparative Studies and 45 Case Series (1989 to 2005)  Author: Michael Zlowodzki, MD, Mohit Bhandari, MD, MSc, Daniel J. Marek, MD, Peter A. Cole, MD, and Philip J. Kregor, MD Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 20, No. 5, May 2006
  • Femur (Distal Femur Fractures) Article: Treatment of Distal Femur Fractures Using the Less Invasive Stabilization System  Author: Philip J. Kregor, MD,* James A. Stannard, MD,† Michael Zlowodzki, MD,‡ and Peter A. Cole, MD‡  Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 18, No. 8, Sept 2004
  • Femur (Distal Femur Fractures) Article: Risk Factors for Failure of Locked Plate Fixation of Distal Femur Fractures: An Analysis of 335 Cases.  Author: Ricci WM, Streubel PN, Morshed S, Collinge CA, Nork, SE, Gardner M.   J Orthop Trauma. 2014;28(2):83-89.
  • Femur (Distal Femur Fractures) Article: Systematic Review of the Treatment of Periprosthetic Distal Femur Fractures.  Author: Ristevski B, Nauth A, Williams DS, et al.  J Orthop Trauma;28(5):307-312.
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Internal Fixation versus Arthroplasty for Intracapsularproximal Femoral Fractures in Adults (Review) Author: Parker MJ, Gurusamy K Journal: Cochrane Review Volume: Issue 2, 2007
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: The Impact of the Garden Classification on Proposed Operative Treatment  Author: Daniel A. Oakes, MD*; Kent R. Jackson, MD*; Mark R. Davies, MD*; Kevin M. Ehrhart, MD**; Gary L. Zohman, MD†; Kenneth J. Koval, MD‡; and Jay R. Lieberman, MD* Journal: CORR Volume: No. 409, pp 232–240, 2003
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Reducing Delirium After Hip Fracture Author: Edward R. Marcantonio, MD, SM,*; Jonathan M. Flacker; MD, R. John Wright, MD& Neil M. Resnick, MD* Journal: JAGS Volume: Vol. 49, No. 5, May 2001
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Intracapsular Fractures of the Hip Author: MF Swiontkowski Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 76-A, No. 1, Jan 1994, pp 129-138
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Internal Fixation Compared with Arthroplasty for Displaced Fractures of the Femoral Neck Author: Mohit Bhandari , MD , MSC, P.J. Devereaux, MD, Marc F. Swiontkowski, MD, Paul Tornetta III, MD, William Obremskey, MD, MPH, Kenneth J. Koval, MD, Sean Nork, MD, Sheila Sprague, BSC, Emil H. Schemitsch, MD, and Gordon H. Guyatt, MD, MSC Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 85-A, No. 9, Sept 2003
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Total Hip Arthroplasty and Hemiarthroplasty in Mobile: Independent Patients with a Displaced Intracapsular Fracture of the Femoral Neck Author: R.P. Baker, MRCS, B. Squires, FRCS (TR&Orth), M.F. Gargan, FRCS(Orth), & G.C. Bannister, MD, FRCS ED (Orth) Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 88-A, No. 12, Dec 2006
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Randomized Comparison of Reduction and Fixation, Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty,and Total Hip Arthroplasty Author: J.F. Keating, FRCSED(ORTH), A. Grant, DM, M. Masson, MSC, N.W. Scott, MSC, and J.F. Forbes, PHD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 88-A, No. 2, Feb 2006
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Internal Fixation versus Hemiarthroplasty for Displaced Fractures of the Femoral Neck in Elderly Patients with Severe Cognitive Impairment Author: R. Blomfeldt, H. Törnkvist, S. Ponzer, A. Söderqvist, J. Tidermark Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 87-B, No. 4, April 2005
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Hemiarthroplasty versus Internal Fixation for Displaced Intracapsular Hip Fractures in the Elderly * Author: M. J. Parker, R. J. K. Khan, J. Crawford, G. A. Pryor Journal: JBJS(Br) Volume: Vol. 84-B, No. 8, Nov 2002, pp 1150-1155
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Pauwels’ Classification of Femoral Neck Fractures: Correct Interpretation of the Original    Author: Jan Bartonícek Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 15, No. 5, pp 358–360
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Internal Fixation Compared with Arthroplasty for Displaced Fractures of the Femoral Neck; A Meta-analysis.  Author: Bhandari M, Devereaux PJ, Swiontkowski MF, Tornetta P 3rd, Obremskey W, Koval KJ, Nork S, Sprague S, Schemitsch EH, Guyatt GH.    J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003 Sep;85-A(9):1673-81.
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Operative Treatment of Femoral Neck Fractures in Patients Between the Ages of Fifteen and Fifty Years.  Author: Haidukewych GJ, Rothwell WS, Jacofsky DJ, Torchia ME, Berry DJ. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004;86-A(8):1711-6.
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Hemiarthroplasty of the Hip With and Without Cement: A Randomized Clinical Trial.   Author: Taylor F, Wright M, Zhu M.   J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94(7):577-583.
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: More Re-Operations After Uncemented than Cemented Hemiarthroplasty Used in the Treatment of Displaced Fractures of the Femoral Neck: An Observational Study of 11,116 Hemiarthroplasties From a National Register. Author: Gjertsen JE, Lie SA, Vinje T, Engesæter LB, Hallan G, Matre K, Furnes O.  J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2012 Aug;94(8):1113-9
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Hip Fractures in the Elderly: Predictors of One Year Mortality. Author: Aharonoff GB, Koval KJ, Skovron ML, Zuckerman JD.  J Orthop Trauma. 1997;11(3):162-165
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Zoledronic Acid and Clinical Fractures and Mortality After Hip Fracture. Author: Lyles KW1, Colón-Emeric CS, Magaziner et al; HORIZON Recurrent Fracture Trial.   N Engl J Med. 2007 Nov 1; 357(18):1799-809.
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Liberal or Restrictive Transfusion in High-Risk Patients After Hip Surgery.  Author: Carson JL, Terrin ML, Noveck H et al; FOCUS Investigators.  N Engl J Med. 2011 Dec 29;365(26):2453-62.
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Open Reduction of Intracapsular Hip Fractures Using a Modified Smith-Petersen Surgical Exposure.   Author: Molnar RB, Routt ML Jr.   J Orthop Trauma. 2007 Aug;21(7):490-4.
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Internal Fixation Versus Cemented Hemiarthroplasty for Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures in Patients with Severe Cognitive Dysfunction: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    Author: Hedbeck CJ, Inngul C, Blomfeldt R, Ponzer S, Tornkvist H, Enocson A. J Orthop Trauma. 2013; 27(12):690-695.
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: The Effect of Shortening and Varus Collapse of the Femoral Neck on Function After Fixation of Intracapsular Fracture of the Hip: A Multi-Centre Cohort Study.  Author: Zlowodzki M, Brink O, Switzer J, Wingerter S, Woodall J Jr, Petrisor BA, Kregor PJ, Bruinsma DR, Bhandari M.   J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2008 Nov;90(11):1487-94.
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: The Value of Washers in Cannulated Screw Fixation of Femoral Neck Fractures.  Author: Zlowodzki M, Weening B, Petrisor B, Bhandari M.  J Trauma. 2005 Oct;59(4):969-75.
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Predictable Healing of Femoral Neck Fractures Treated with Intraoperative Compression and Length-Stable Implants.  Author: Boraiah S, Paul O, Hammoud S, Gardner MJ, Helfet DL, Lorich DG.  J Trauma. 2010 Jul;69(1):142-7.

  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Effect of Early Surgery After Hip Fracture on Mortality and Complications: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.  Author: Simunovic N, Devereaux PJ, Sprague S, Guyatt GH, Schemitsch E, Debeer J, Bhandari M.  CMAJ. 2010 Oct 19; 182(15):1609-16.
  • Femur (Femoral Neck Fractures) Article: Accelerated Bone Mineral Loss Following a Hip Fracture: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.  Author: Dirschl DR, Henderson RC, Oakley WC. Bone. 1997 Jul;21(1):79-82.
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Mortality After Reamed Intramedullary Nailing of Bilateral Femur Fractures  Author: Sean E. Nork, MD*, Julie Agel, MA*, George V. Russell, MD**, William J. Mills, MD*, Sarah Holt, MPH*, and M.L. Chip Routt, Jr., MD* Journal: CORR Volume: No. 415, Oct 2003, pp 272–278
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Fat Embolism: the Reaming Controversy Author: Peter V Giannoudis, Christopher Tzioupis, Hans-Christoph Pape Journal: INJURY Volume: Vol. 37 Supp, pp S50-S58, 2006
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Pneumonia, and Mortality following Thoracic Injury and a Femoral Fracture Treated Either with Intramedullary Nailing with Reaming or with a Plate: A Comparative Study Author: Michael J. Bosse, Ellen J. Mackenzie, Barry L. Riemer, Robert J. Brumback, Melissa L. McCarthy, Andrew R. Burgess, David R. Gens and Yutaka Yasui Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 79-A, No. 6, June 1997, pp 799-809
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Early versus Delayed Stabilization of Femoral Fractures: A Prospective Randomized Study Author: Lawrence B. Bone, MD; Kenneth D. Johnson, MD; John Weigelt, MD;and Robert Scheinberg, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 71A pp 336–340, 1989
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Immediate Weight-Bearing After Treatment of a Comminuted Fracture of the Femoral Shaft with a Statically Locked Intramedullary Nail Author: Robert J. Brumback, Thomas R. Toal, M. Siobhan Murphy-Zane, Vincent P. Novak & Stephen M. Belkoff Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 81, pp 1538-44, 1999
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Reamed Versus Unreamed Intramedullary Nailing of the Femur: Comparison of the Rate of ARDS in Multiple Injured Patients  Author: The Canadian Orthopaedic Trauma Society Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 20, No. 6, July 2006
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Retrograde Versus Antegrade Nailing of Femoral Shaft Fractures Author: William M. Ricci, *Carlo Bellabarba, Bradley Evanoff, Dolfi Herscovici, Thomas DiPasquale, and Roy Sanders Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 15, No. 3, 2001, pp 161–169
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Cephalomedullary Nails in the Treatment of High-energy Proximal Femur Fractures in Young Patients: A Prospective, Randomized Comparison of Trochanteric Versus Piriformis Fossa Entry Portal  Author: Adam J. Starr, MD, Michael T. Hay, MD, Charles M. Reinert, MD, Drake S. Borer, MD, and Kevin C. Christensen, MD Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 20, No. 4, April 2006
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Impact of Intramedullary Instrumentation versus Damage Control for Femoral Fractures on Immunoinflammatory Parameters: Prospective Randomized Analysis by the EPOFF Study Group Author: Hans-Cristoph Pape, MD, K. Grimme, Martin van Griensven, PhD, A. H. Sott, MD, P. Giannoudis, MD, J. Morley, MD, Olav Roise, MD, Elisabeth Ellingsen, MD, Frank Hildebrand, MD, B. Wiese, MD, and Christian Krettek, MD Journal: TRAUMA Volume: Vol. 55, No. 1, pp 7-13
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Closed Intramedullary Nailing of Femoral Fractures: A Report of Five Hundred and Twenty Cases.  Author: Winquist RA, Hansen ST Jr, Clawson DK.
    J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1984;66(4):529-39.
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Intramedullary Nailing of Femoral Shaft Fractures. Part I: Decision-making Errors with Interlocking Fixation.  Author: Brumback RJ, Reilly JP, Poka A, Lakatos RP, Bathon GH, Burgess AR.   J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1988 Dec; 70(10):1441-52. 
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Intramedullary Nailing of Femoral Shaft Fractures. Part III: Long-term Effects of Static Interlocking Fixation.  Author: Brumback RJ, Ellison TS, Poka A, Bathon GH, Burgess AR. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1992 Jan;74(1):106-12.
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Conversion of External Fixation to Intramedullary Nailing for Fractures of the Shaft of the Femur in Multiply Injured Patients. Author: Nowatarski PJ, Turen CH, Brumback RJ, Scarboro JM. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2000;82(6):781-8.
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Trochanteric Versus Piriformis Entry Portal for the Treatment of Femoral Shaft Fractures.  Author: Ricci WM, Schwappach J, Tucker M, et al. J Orthop Trauma. 2006;20(10):663-7.
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Surgical Treatment Improves Clinical and Functional Outcomes for Patients Who Sustain Incomplete Bisphosphonate-Related Femur Fractures.  Author: Egol KA, Park JH, Prensky C, Rosenberg ZS, Peck V, Tejwani, NC. J Orthop Trauma. 2013;27(6):331-335.
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Bisphosphonate-Associated Fractures of the Femur: Pathophysiology and Treatment.   Author: Einhorn TA, Bogdan Y, Tornetta P III.    J Orthop Trauma. 2014;28(7):433-438.
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Functional Outcome Following Intramedullary Nailing of the Femur: A Prospective Randomized Comparison of Piriformis Fossa and Greater Trochanteric Entry Portals.
    Author: Stannard JP, Bankston L, Futch LA, McGwin G, Volgas DA.  J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011 Aug 3;93(15):1385-91.
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Prospective Comparison of Retrograde and Antegrade Femoral Intramedullary Nailing.  Author: Ostrum RF, Agarwal A, Lakatos R, Poka A.  J Orthop Trauma. 2000 Sep-Oct; 14(7):496-501.
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures) Article: Nonisthmal Femoral Shaft Nonunion as a Risk Factor for Exchange Nailing Failure.  Author: Yang KH, Kim JR, Park J.  J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012 Feb;72(2):E60-4
  • Femur (Femoral Shaft Fractures//Ante vs. Retro) Article: Orthopaedic Trauma Association Edwin G. Bovill, Jr., M.D. Award: Prospective Comparison of Retrograde and Antegrade Femoral Intramedullary Nailing  Author: Ostrum, Robert F.; Agarwal, Animesh; Lakatos, Ronald; Poka, Attila Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 14, No. 7, Sept/Oct 2000, pp 496-501
  • Femur (Intertrochanteric Fractures) Article: Hip Fractures: II. Evaluation and Treatment of Intertrochanteric Fractures Author: Kenneth J. Koval, MD, and Joseph D. Zuckerman, MD Journal: JAAOS Volume: Vol. 2, No. 3, June 1994, pp 150-156
  • Femur (Intertrochanteric Fractures) Article: The Value of the Tip-Apex Distance in Predicting Failure of Fixation of Peritrochanteric Fractures of the Hip Author: MR Baumgaertner, SL Curtin, DM Lindskog and JM Keggi Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 77-A, No. 7, July 1995, pp 1058-1064
  • Femur (Intertrochanteric Fractures) Article: Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of an Intramedullary Nail Versus Dynamic Screw and Plate for Intertrochanteric Fractures of the Femur  Author: Christopher I. Adams, C. Michael Robinson, Charles M. Court-Brown, and Margaret M. McQueen Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 15, No. 6, pp 394–400. 2001
  • Femur (Intertrochanteric Fractures) Article: Evidence-Based Orthopaedic Trauma: Unstable Pertrochanteric Femoral Fractures Author: Philip J. Kregor, MD,* William T. Obremskey, MD, MPH,* Hans J. Kreder, MD, MPH,† and Marc F. Swiontkowski, MD‡ Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan 2005, pp 63-66 
  • Femur (Intertrochanteric Fractures) Article: Reverse Obliquity Fractures of the Intertrochanteric Region of the Femur.  Author: Haidukewych GJ, Israel TA, Berry DJ. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001;83-A(%):643-650
  • Femur (Intertrochanteric Fractures) Article: Gamma Nails Revisited: Gamma Nails Versus Compression Hip Screws in the Management of Intertrochanteric Fractures of the Hip: A Meta-Analysis.  Author: Bhandari M, Schemitsch E, Jonsson A, Zlowodzki M, Haidukewych GJ.  J Orthop Trauma. 2009;23(6):460-4.
  • Femur (Intertrochanteric Fractures) Article: Hip Fracture Study Group. Integrity of the Lateral Femoral Wall in Intertrochanteric Hip Fractures: An Important Predictor of a Reoperation. Author: Palm H, Jacobsen S, Sonne-Holm S, Gebuhr P; J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(3):470-5.
  • Femur (Intertrochanteric Fractures) Article: Does Early Administration of Bisphosphonate Affect Fracture Healing in Patients with Intertrochanteric Fractures?  Author: Kim TY, Ha YC, Kang BJ, Lee YK, Koo KH.  J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2012 Jul; 94(7):956-60
  • Femur (Subtrochanteric Fractures) Article: Treatment of Reverse Oblique and Transverse Intertrochanteric Fractures with Use of an Intramedullary Nail or a 95° Screw-Plate: A Prospective, Randomized Study Author: Christophe Sadowski, MD, Anne Lubbeke, MD, Marc Saudan, MD, Nicolas Riand, MD, Richard Stern, MD, and Pierre Hoffmeyer, MD Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 84-A, No. 3, March 2002
  • Femur (Subtrochanteric Fractures) Article: Subtrochanteric Fractures of the Femur Author: Frank Seinsheimer III, M.D.* of Boston, Massachusetts Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 60-A, No. 3, April 1978, pp 300-306
  • Femur ( Subtrochanteric Fractures) Article: A Critical Analysis of the Eccentric Starting Point for Trochanteric Intramedullary Femoral Nailing  Author: Robert F. Ostrum, MD, Andrew Marcantonio, DO, & Robert Marburger, RN Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 19, No. 10, Nov/Dec 2005, pp 681-686
  • Femur (Subtrochanteric Fractures) Article: Biologic Plating Versus Intramedullary Nailing for Comminuted Subtrochanteric Fractures in Young Adults: A Prospective, Randomized Study of 66 Cases.  Author: Lee PC, Hsieh PH, Yu SW, et al.  J Trauma. 2007;63(6):1283-91.
  • Femur (Subtrochanteric Fractures) Article: Subtrochanteric Fractures of the Femur. Results of Treatment with the 95 Degrees Condylar Blade-Plate.  Author: Kinast C, Bolhofner BR, Mast JW, Ganz R.   Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1989 Jan;(238):122-30.
  • Femur (Subtrochanteric Fractures) Article: Reducing Subtrochanteric Femur Fractures: Tips and Tricks, Do's and Don'ts.  Author: Yoon RS, Donegan DJ, Liporace FA.  J Orthop Trauma. 2015 Apr;29 Suppl 4:S28-33.

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