Ankle

These articles have been recommended as excellent sources of educational information. The permission of each varies. 


  • Ankle (Rehab) Article: Use of a Cast Compared with a Functional Ankle Brace After Operative Treatment of an Ankle Fracture  Author: Hannu Lehtonen , MD etc . Journal: JBJS Volume: Vol. 85-A, No. 2, Feb 2003, pp 205-21
  • Ankle (Syndesmosis) Article: Tricortical Versus Quadricortical Syndesmosis Fixation in Ankle Fractures  Author: Per Høiness, MD,* and Knut Strømsøe, MD, PhD Journal: JOT Volume: Vol. 18, No. 6, July 2004 
  • Ankle (Ankle Sprains) Article: Treatment of Acute Ankle Ligament Injuries: A Systematic Review.  Author: Petersen W, Rembitzki IV, Koppenburg AG, Ellermann A, Liebau C, Brüggemann GP, Best R.Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2013 Aug;133(8):1129-41.
  • Ankle (Ankle Sprains) Article: Mechanical Supports for Acute, Severe Ankle Sprain: A Pragmatic, Multicentre, Randomised Controlled Trial.
    Author: Lamb SE1, Marsh JL, Hutton JL, Nakash R, Cooke MW; Collaborative Ankle Support Trial (CAST Group).
    Lancet 2009 Feb 14;373(9663):575-81.
  • Ankle (Ankle Sprains) Article: Elastic Stockings or Tubigrip for Ankle Sprain: A Randomised Clinical Trial.
    Author: Sultan MJ, McKeown A, McLaughlin I, Kurdy N, McCollum CN.  Injury. 2012 Jul;43(7):1079-83.
  • Ankle (Ankle Fractures) Article: Changes in Tibiotalar Area of Contact Caused by Lateral Talar Shift.  Author: Ramsey PL, Hamilton W.  J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1976; 58(3):356-7. 
  • Ankle (Ankle Fractures) Article: Intraoperative Assessment of the Stability of the Distal Tibiofibular Joint in Supination-External Rotation Injuries of the Ankle: Sensitivity, Specificity, and Reliability of Two Clinical Tests.   Author: Pakarinen H, Flinkkila T, Ohtonen P, et al.  J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011;93(22):2057-61.
  • Ankle (Ankle Fractures) Article: No Difference in Functional and Radiographic Results 8.4 Years After Quadricortical Compared with Tricortical Syndesmosis Fixation in Ankle Fractures.  Author: Wilkeroy AK, Hoiness PR, Andreassen GS, Hellund JC, Madsen JE.  J Orthop Trauma 2010;24(1):17-23. 
  • Ankle (Ankle Fractures) Article: Does Medial Tenderness Predict Deep Deltoid Ligament Incompetence in Supination-External Rotation Type Ankle Fractures?    Author: DeAngelis NA, Eskander MS, French BG.  J Orthop Trauma. 2007;21(4):244-247. 
  • Ankle (Ankle Fractures) Article: Stress Examination of Supination External Rotation-Type Fibular Fractures. Author: McConnell T, Creevy W, Tornetta P III. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004;86-A(10):2171-2178. 
  • Ankle (Ankle Fractures) Article: Twenty-One-Year Follow-up of Supination-External Rotation Type II-IV (OTA type B) Ankle Fractures: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Author: Donken CC, Verhofstad MH, Edwards MJ, van Laarhoven CJ. J Orthop Trauma 2012; 26(8):e108-e114. 
  • Ankle (Ankle Fractures) Article: Twenty-One-Year Follow-up of Pronation-External Rotation Type III-IV (OTA type C) Ankle Fractures: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Author: Donken CC, Verhofstad MH, Edwards MJ, van Laarhoven CJ. J Orthop Trauma. 2012;26(8):e115-e122
  • Ankle (Ankle Fractures) Article: Operative Versus Nonoperative Treatment of Unstable Lateral Malleolar Fractures: A Randomized Multicenter Trial. Author: Sanders DW, Tieszer C, Corbett B; and Canadian Orthopedic Trauma Society. J Orthop Trauma. 2012;26(3):129-134.
  • Ankle (Ankle Fractures) Article: The Functional Consequence of Syndesmotic Joint Malreduction at a Minimum 2-year Follow-up. Author: Sagi HC, Shah AR, Sanders RW.    J Orthop Trauma. 2012;26(7):439-443.
  • Ankle (Ankle Fractures) Article: Extraperiosteal Plating of Pronation-Abduction Ankle Fractures. Surgical Technique. Author: Siegel J, Tornetta P 3rd   J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008 Mar;90 Suppl 2 Pt 1:135-44.  
  • Ankle (Ankle Fractures) Article: Conservative Treatment of Isolated Fractures of the Medial Malleolus.     Author: Herscovici D Jr, Scaduto JM, Infante A.     J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2007 Jan; 89(1):89-93.
  • Ankle (Ankle Fractures) Article: Does a Positive Ankle Stress Test Indicate the Need for Operative Treatment After Lateral Malleolus Fracture? A Preliminary Report.    Author: Koval KJ, Egol KA, Cheung Y, Goodwin DW, Spratt KF. J Orthop Trauma. 2007 Aug; 21(7):449-55.
  • Ankle (Ankle Fractures) Article: Compression Stockings in the Management of Fractures of the Ankle: A Randomised Controlled Trial.   Author: Sultan MJ, Zhing T, Morris J, Kurdy N, McCollum CN.
    Bone Joint J. 2014 Aug; 96-B(8):1062-9.
  • Ankle (Ankle Fractures) Article: Does Syndesmotic Injury Have a Negative Effect on Functional Outcome? A Multicenter Prospective Evaluation.  Author: Litrenta J, Saper D, Tornetta P 3rd, Phieffer L, Jones C, Mullis B, Egol K, Collinge C, Leighton R, Ertl W, Ricci W, Teague D, Ertl JP.  J Orthop Trauma. 2015 Jan 29
  • Ankle (Ankle Fractures) Article: Treatment of the Stress Positive Ligamentous SE4 Ankle Fracture: Incidence of Syndesmotic Injury and Clinical Decision Making.   Author: Tornetta P 3rd, Axelrad TW, Sibai TA, Creevy WR.
    J Orthop Trauma. 2012 Nov; 26(11):659-61.
  • Ankle (Ankle Fractures) Article: Syndesmotic Instability in Weber B Ankle Fractures: A Clinical Evaluation. Stark E, Tornetta P 3rd, Creevy WR.J Orthop Trauma. 2007 Oct;21(9):643-6.
  • Ankle (Ankle Fractures) Article: Functional Outcome and Limitation of Sporting Activities After Bimalleolar and Trimalleolar Ankle Fractures. Author: Hong CC, Roy SP, Nashi N, Tan KJ.Foot Ankle Int. 2013 Jun; 34(6):805-10. 


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